The system could be manufactured at relatively low cost, since inexpensive construction materials may be used. Although they have a relatively low coefficient of performance compared to air-conditioning systems using mechanical compressors, the ejector cooling technologies have attracted extensive attentions with ever-increasing awareness and pressures for protecting the environment and have achieved significant improvement in coefficient of performance as compared to other systems. The continuous developments in solar collector technology open the way to the effective utilization of solar energy to power the ejector systems and utilization of environmental friendly refrigerants is also the major concern.
This chapter introduces the principle of the ejector, basic ejector cycle, solar-driven ejector system and its operating. The refrigerants, solar collectors, and PCM heat storage for solar ejector system applications are also introduced. A complete solar ejector air-conditioning system used in a building is presented in this chapter.
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As the well known that global energy demand is on a trend of continuous growth, reducing energy demand and making good use of renewable energy are thought to be the major routes toward low carbon and sustainable future, in particular for the building sector. Compared to traditional gas-fired heating systems, heat pumps have been proved to be an energy-efficient heating technology which can save fossil fuel energy and consequently reduce CO 2 emission. However, the most outstanding challenges for the application of heat pumps lie in their high demand for electrical power, and the insufficient heat transfer between the heat source and the refrigerant.
To overcome these difficulties, a solar-assisted heat pump has been proposed to tackle these challenges. A solar-assisted heat pump combines a heat pump with a solar collector, enabling the use of solar energy to provide space heating and hot water for buildings. This chapter introduces heat pump technologies and their applications in solar systems.
Two types of solar-assisted heat pump, direct and indirect expansion, are illustrated in details. This work has provided the fundamental research and experience for developing a solar heat pump system and contributing to a significant fossil fuel saving and carbon reduction in the global extent. Thermoelectric power generation TEG is the most effective process that can create electrical current from a thermal gradient directly, based on the Seebeck effect.
Solar energy as renewable energy can provide the thermal energy to produce the temperature difference between the hot and cold sides of the thermoelectric device. This chapter introduces various solar thermoelectric technologies including micro-channel heat pipe evacuated tube solar collector incorporated thermoelectric power generation system, solar concentrating thermoelectric generator using the micro-channel heat pipe array, and novel photovoltaic—thermoelectric power generation system.
The details of these systems are illustrated, and their performance is analyzed. This chapter would provide a valuable reference for the study and applications of the solar thermoelectric power generation technologies. With the rapid development of urbanization, the energy consumption problem has attracted more and more attention.
Solar energy, a kind of inexhaustible renewable energy, has played an important role in the energy sector. Solar energy can be used through the solar thermal transformation process and solar photovoltaic process. Then, the heat and electricity gained by those two processes can be used for many urban building applications, such as heating, cooling, hot water, and power supply.
In this chapter, a detailed introduction on solar heating and cooling and domestic hot water applications for urban buildings is presented, which includes the integration of solar collectors with buildings, solar domestic hot water, space heating, and cooling applications for buildings and building-integrated photovoltaics. Recently, solar system has gained a rapid development in many countries because it is clean and sustainable. Furthermore, some systems are compared with the conventional system, and the performance of these solar systems is better than the conventional system.
In addition, these solar systems are applied in many real buildings and their performance is examined, the results show that the solar systems have more potential to boost the building energy efficiency and create the possibility of solar development in buildings. The economic and environmental performance assessment of the solar system plays a critical role in building design, operation and retrofit. A dedicated economic model is necessary to assess the investment feasibility on a new technology, which allows investors to decide on a profitable investment, compare investment projects and know about the benefits of the best investment.
An environmental model is adopted to predict carbon emission reduction in the solar system relative to the traditional heating and electronic systems. When it comes to the energy consumption of the thermal process in building, i. Large energy consumptions like these can consume vast amounts of fossil fuels and release large masses of carbon emissions and pollution into the environment.
As a kind of sustainable and clean energy, solar energy can act as an alternative in the building thermal process, thus reducing fossil fuel consumption globally. Similarly, the role of 4DH on a European scale as well as in China is targeted. We assume that storage will be a necessity in future energy systems based on fluctuating renewable energy sources.
WP2 develops methodologies of analysis and investigates the means of adding system flexibility through geothermal storage for steam and hot water as well as other storage options. Steam and heat storages enable the temporal separation of electricity and heat production from waste incineration. Conventional distributed CHP mainly assists the energy system by means of its high efficiency, but 4DH will assist the energy system additionally through its flexibility. Research develops tools and focuses on investigating the investment and daily operation strategies for distributed CHP, when these plants participate across more wholesale markets and balancing markets.
Furthermore, it focuses on the needed interaction between the plants when optimising market participation.
Here, we assume that electricity and heat productions are moving away from storable fossil fuels and that combustible biomass and waste resources are being limited in quantity. This is advantageous in these cyclone prone regions since cyclones and cool breezes commonly come from an onshore direction see Orientation. Other elevations should also include openings because breezes come from a variety of directions and can be redirected or diverted through good design and appropriate window styles, especially casement windows. Free running buildings should not be conditioned at a future date without substantial alteration: this includes reducing the size of openings, adding bulk insulation around the room s to be conditioned and condensation detailing.
Sleeping comfort is a significant issue, especially during periods of high humidity where night temperatures often remain above those required for human comfort. This proportion is rapidly increasing — often because inadequate shading, insulation and ventilation, or poor orientation and room configuration for passive cooling and sun control, cause unnecessary overheating.
Passive solar heating is required during winter months and varies from very little to significant. Integrate passive heating requirements with cool breeze capture by providing passive or active shading eaves or awnings to all windows. Employ well-designed shading and insulation to limit heat gain and maximise summer heat loss in response to the specific microclimate see Shading. They are ideal for arid climates where low humidity promotes high evaporation rates. Minimise east and west-facing glazing or provide adjustable external shading. High mass living areas are more comfortable during waking hours.
Low mass sleeping areas cool quickly at night.
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High insulation prevents winter heat loss and summer heat gain. Evaporative cooling and active solar heating systems reduce the need for large, solar exposed glass areas for heating i. Specialist passive and low energy cooling systems have evolved for hot dry climate areas in other parts of the world e. Middle East, Arizona which are also applicable to a large portion of the Australian continent. They introduce moisture to building structures such as roof ponds or water sprayed onto evaporative pads and incorporate stacks or chimneys that use convection to exhaust rising hot air and draw cooler, low level air into the building.
This air can be evaporatively cooled by being drawn over ponds, or through mist sprays or underground labyrinths these towers are dominant elements and are therefore an integral part of the fundamental architecture of the building. Modern version of an Iranian Badgir cooling system where earth exchange and evaporation pre-cool incoming air drawn by a solar chimney.
With good design, temperate climates require minimal heating or cooling.
Good orientation, passive shading, insulation and design for cross-ventilation generally provide adequate cooling. Additional solutions from the range explained here can be used where site conditions create higher cooling loads. Zone 7 requires careful consideration of cooling needs because climate change modelling indicates that it is likely to be impacted by climate change more than most other zones. This necessitates a shift from the current high thermal mass design practices to moderate or low mass designs with carefully calculated glass to mass ratios to avoid summer overheating.
Higher mass solutions remain useful in higher altitude and colder regions where significant diurnal ranges are likely to continue to provide reliable cooling in all but extreme weather events. High humid climates present the greatest challenge in achieving thermal comfort because high humidity levels reduce evaporation rates see Design for climate.
Acclimatisation is a significant factor in achieving thermal comfort. Most people living in tropical climates choose to do so.
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They like the climate and know how to live comfortably within its extremes by adopting appropriate living patterns to maximise the outdoor lifestyle opportunities it offers. Sleeping comfort at night during the hottest and most humid periods is a significant issue for many people living in tropical climates.
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Sleeping comfort generally should be a high priority when choosing, designing or building a home. Different members of a household have different thermal comfort thresholds. Children often adapt to seasonal changes more easily than adults do. Understanding the sleeping comfort requirements of each member of the household can lead to better design, positioning or allocation of bedrooms — and increased thermal comfort for all with less dependence on mechanical cooling.
Live outside when time of day and seasonal conditions are suitable — particularly in the evenings.
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Radiation by the body to cool night skies is an effective cooling mechanism, especially in the early evening when daytime heat loads have not been allowed to escape from the interior of the house. Cooking outside during hotter months reduces heat loads inside. This Australian lifestyle tradition developed to suit our climate is not often directly connected to thermal comfort.
Locate barbeques outdoors, under cover in close proximity to the kitchen, with good access either by servery or screened door. Shaded barbecue and outdoor eating areas insect screened where required facilitate outdoor living and increased comfort. Sleep-outs are an ideal way to achieve sleeping comfort and can provide low cost additional space for visitors who often arrive during the hotter Christmas period.
Vary active hours to make best use of comfortable temperature ranges at different times of the year. The siesta regime of most Central American countries is a practical lifestyle response to specific climatic conditions that are also experienced in high humid and hot dry regions of Australia. Contact your state, territory or local government for further information on passive design considerations for your climate. Condensation in buildings: handbook.
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Beagley, S. Greenhouse friendly design for the tropics. Bureau of Meteorology BOM. Wind roses for selected locations. Cairns style design guide. Clark, M.