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Ask the Experts Why do bubbles form if a glass of water is left alone for a while? Tref- fert and Daniel D. We devised three simple experiments for testing the theory on Peek.

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In the third experiment we read aloud a list of words for him to remem- ber: ice, snowman, winter, North Pole, chill, Kool-Aid. Peek, though, was immune to this illusion, perhaps because of his shallow depth of processing. Thus, at least some savants may owe their skills to some degree of failure in higher-level perceptual and conceptual encoding of incoming sensory informa- tion.

The technique we have introduced provides a simple, low-tech approach to testing the idea on other savants. Ramachandran, Lindsey Oberman, S.

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Azoulai and L. Thank you for reprimanding Mirsky about prosely- tizing his personal religion, instead of reporting on science. Bob Langenbach SeaTac, Wash. Jacobson and Re- naud Parentani, and a report of research data complement- ing Darold A. Treffert and Daniel D. Ap- parently they appreciated the challenge, for there was not a cross word about it.

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Alas, evolution remains science. How can this be? Apparently the SA 50 editors relied on an advisory board that also excluded women.

Science and Art (Scientific American Special Online Issue No. 21)

Publishing a list of achievements that systematically ignores those by women is a serious editorial lapse. It im- pacts the careers of women scientists at all levels, decreasing the attractiveness of science to young women and preventing senior women from reaching full poten- tial. Elaine L. As with all value-added or sales taxes, this is regressive, disproportionately im- pacting low-income individuals.

Vehicles that exceed the target would receive a rebate, decreasing through time as the mileage goal increases. The revenue should be earmarked to the construction and op- eration of renewable energy sources. Luis Messina Prunedale, Calif. Jacobson and Renaud Parentani ex- plain Hawking radiation as one member of a pair of virtual particles that is stranded outside a black hole while the other is trapped inside. Richard Dexheimer Dallas, Tex.

In the effect, a pair of photons, for example, emerges from the vac- uum, one outside the horizon with positive energy and the other inside with opposite, negative energy. The members of a virtual pairmustalwayshaveoppositevaluesofen- ergy,becausethetotalenergyisconserved. Therefore, only a positive-energy photon can escape, whereas its negative-energy partner is trapped inside, lowering the total energy— and therefore the mass—of the black hole.

Ifanegative-energyphotoncannotexist outside the horizon, how can it exist inside? The usual concept of con- served energy is related to time-shift sym- metry, whereby the laws of physics are the same at all times. Conserved momentum is related to space-shift symmetry. In a black hole spacetime, the symmetry that is a tem- poral shift outside the horizon becomes a spatialshiftinside.

Therefore,thesinglecon- served quantity corresponds to energy out- side and momentum inside. Because noth- ing prohibits adding momentum to the vacu- um, negative-energy partners can exist inside the horizon, as long as their locally measured energy is positive. Inside the sonic horizon, however, the flow speed is greater than the speed of sound. Suchawavecan be thought of as containing negative energy.

Half of the uranium will be sold or leased to approved groups in the U. The U. The 88, pounds of U represent enough fuel to generate four million kilo- watts of electric power, or the com- bined explosive charge of some 3, atomic bombs. Believing this solution had a money value, they have, until recently, preserved whatever se- crecy they could. The great loss of life can be laid at its door alone, for the people, terror-stricken by the violence of the volcanic detonations and the murky yel- low gloom, huddle together in buildings, many of which collapse under the weight of the accumulated material which has fallen upon them.

Constantini, a well-known inventor of carbure- tors for automobiles, is attracting considerable attention owing to its novelty [see illustration]. Three sports- women equipped with the skates are to have a race from the Place de la Concorde to the Maillot Gate. Professor Ehrenberg, of Berlin, sent for samples of sand from all the sta- tions along lines of railway that the spe- cie had passed, and by means of his mi- croscope, identified the station from which the sand must have been taken.

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One of the most far-reaching aspects of migra- tion often gets ignored altogether: remit- tances—the money and gifts that migrants send back to families and friends. Politicians have perked up, too. The reason for all the attention is simple. Even though the average migrant sends back just a couple of hundred dollars a month, it adds up to serious money. From late fall to midwinter, this tiny Austrian town, famous for its glassblowing, gets no sun at all.

And it has been that way for centuries. Bartenbach Light Laboratory in the Austrian Tyrol plans to begin construction of the heliostats this August. A civil war broke out at the time between supporters of the Austrian duke Frederick the Handsome and the Bavarian duke Louis of Wittels- bach.


Raids and plundering ended; the shade remains. To this day, when the cold months come the daylight stays below the horizon, blocked by the mountains. Case studies have found that recipients invest little of the money in farm equipment or business start-ups, pre- ferring instead to go on shopping sprees.

In the s, though, Durand and oth- ers argued that case studies do not track the full effect of remittances as they ripple through an economy.

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Even if families do not invest the money, the businesses they buy from do, so remittances can jump-start growth. The infu- sion of money makes a real difference in places where entrepreneurs have no other access to capital. Some towns achieve prosperity aided by remittances; others get trapped in a cycle of dependency. A number of cross-country analyses, such as one last year by economist Nikola Spatafora of the International Monetary Fund and his col- leagues, have concluded that nations that rake in more remittances have a lower pov- erty rate—but only barely.

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A larger effect is to smooth out the business cycle, because migrants increase their giving during eco- nomic downturns in their homelands and scale it back during upswings. Averting the disruptive extremes of boom and bust can help bring about long-term growth. One burning question is whether immi- grants who sink roots into their adopted countries send less money. Mean- while his institution and others are working to procure good data.

The ideas include taxing it, providing matching funds for development projects, and enticing migrants who have made it good to move back home. In the end, though, the most effective policy may simply be for governments to build infrastructure, ensure stability and generally pull their economic act together. Pez- zana says they will be set on poles, and each will measure about six feet across, tracking the sun using custom software running re- motely from Rattenberg.

The small mirrors will also diffuse the light, minimizing fire hazards and preventing glare. On the street, the effect will seem to be more of a dap- pling than full sun. All the necessary measure- ment and calibration have added up in the past to price tags that have kept heliostats from being an everyday proposition. Barten- bach Light Laboratory plans to install the heliostats this summer.

Should offer last- ing protection, preferably for a lifetime. Others may elicit a partial im- mune response but fail to activate T cells, the pow- erful search-and-destroy soldiers of the immune system. Andino and the others are working to piggyback the immune-stimulating features of various vaccines onto the yellow fever shot.

Based on a strain called YF17D, the yel- low fever vaccine is a live but weakened form of the wild virus. Charles M.

Opioids: Last Week Tonight with John Oliver (HBO)